The United Nations in Indonesia
Indonesia is the fourth largest country in the world by population with a total of more than 266 million people, projected to reach 319 million by 2045. It is an independent republic, a member of the G-20, and currently a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (2019-2020), and the Human Rights Council (2020-2022).
Indonesia has seen robust economic growth and rapid development progress over the past decades. Poverty has been halved, education is near universal and more people have better access to health care, clean water and justice than ever before. Indonesia’s economy is the largest in South East Asia, and the 14th largest in the world. With a per-capita GNI of US$ 3,840 in 2018, Indonesia is a Lower-Middle Income country, close to reaching the Upper-Middle Income threshold. Its economy grew by 5 per cent annually between 2014-2018.
Indonesia officially became the 60th member of the United Nations on 28 September 1950. Since then, the United Nations has been working in partnership with the Government to enhance development, strengthen democracy and work towards ending extreme poverty by 2030. At the country level, the relationship between the UN and the Government has evolved from a traditional donor beneficiary relationship into a strategic partnership given Indonesia’s growing middle-income status. Under the leadership of the Resident Coordinator, the UN Country Team in Indonesia (23 Agencies, Funds and Programmes and Non Resident Agencies with 1,600 personnel) currently provide policy advice, technical support and knowledge sharing on a host of development priorities, outlined in the current UN 5-year Strategy in Indonesia, the UN Partnership for Development Framework (UNPDF) 2016–2020.
The UNPDF reflects Indonesia’s middle-income status and growing development success as well as the UN’s transition from a donor to a strategic partner. Indonesia has placed inclusive and sustainable development at the heart of its national planning framework. All of the SDGs and, to date, 105 of its targets and indicators, have been integrated into successive versions of the National Development Plan (RPJMN) and into monitoring mechanisms at the national and sub-national level. So far, two Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) in 2017 and 2019 have been presented at the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) at UNHQ. The Government also launched a more detailed SDG Roadmap in 2019 elaborating priority targets, gaps and interventions needed to attain its goals.
On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)”. The pandemic has amplified the relevance and urgency of delivering on Indonesia’s national SDG goals and targets. Indonesia’s emergence as one of the world’s leading economies with ensuing strong economic growth, a rapid decrease in poverty rates, improvements in education and access to better health services, food, water, sanitation and electricity is challenged. The UN is committed to work with the Government of Indonesia in safeguarding the progress made on achieving the SDGs and to support required measures to address any possible adverse effect such as progress in the fight against poverty (SDG1), food security and nutrition (SDG2), the risk to exacerbate inequalities (SDG10), particularly gender inequality (SDG5) and interruption in routine health services (SDG3).
On April 2020, The UN in Indonesia signed a Cooperation Framework with the Government of Indonesia, the UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) 2021–2025.
The UNSDCF outlines a partnership between the UN and the Government of Indonesia articulating the UN’s collective actions to support Indonesia in preserving and accelerating achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It was developed through a multi-stakeholder consultation process and is aligned with the National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2020-2024)
- 28 September 1950: Indonesia joins the UN. Indonesia was admitted as the 60th Member State of the United Nations. The vote for admission, which was unanimous, took place five years after Indonesia’s Proclamation of Independence in 1945.
- February 1957: Indonesia sends its first Peacekeeping mission. Indonesia’s contribution to the Peacekeeping mission began when the country sent 559 infantry personnel as part of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in Sinai. Currently, the number of Indonesian personnel serving in various missions (according to joint data as of 30 November 2018) is 3,544 personnel (including 94 female personnel), and puts Indonesia in 7th place out of 124 Troops / Police Contributing Countries.
- 1974 – 1975: Indonesia serves as a member of the Security Council (non-permanent) for the first time. In 2019, Indonesia served as the member – for the fourth time (2019-2020) after 2007-2008, 1995-1996 and its inaugural in 1974-1975.
- 2017: Indonesia enacts Presidential Decree (Perpres) No. 59 Year 2017 on Implementing the Achievement of SDGs. The Presidential Decree mandates the establishment of a National Coordinating Team (NCT) led by the President as the Chairman of the Advisory Board, Vice President as the Vice Chairman of the Advisory Board, Minister of National Development Planning/Head of Bappenas as the Implementing coordinator which involves all stakeholders to take part in the implementation of SDGs.
- April 2020: The UN – Indonesia Partnership Framework (UNSDCF 2021-2025) was signed between GoI and the UN. The United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) has been positioned as the single most important UN country planning instrument, responding to national priorities and in support of the 2030 Agenda, with a more robust planning process from which UN Agency country programme documents are derived.
- October 2020: United Nations and Republic of Indonesia both turn 75. The Government of Indonesia and the United Nations System are committed to building a nation that is prosperous, democratic and just, where development benefits all people, and where the rights of future generations are protected.
The Sustainable Development Goals in Indonesia
To ensure UN’s presence in Indonesia is most effective, we are partnering with both the Government and private sector to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals together. Building and harnessing partnerships for the Sustainable Development Goals is a one in itself: Goal 17. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.